Greta Garbo and Victor Sjostrom

Sunday, April 21, 2024

Sweden Talks, Waiting in Vain for Greta Garbo; Victor Sjostrom the actor

     Author Jon Wengstrom has noted that as early as October of 1933 director Gustaf Molander and cameraman Julius Jaenzon were among the founding members of the Swedish Film Society (Svenska Filmsamfundet), a body which eventually let to the forming of The Swedish Filminstite (Svensk Filminstitutet), established by the critic Bengt Idestram-Almquist who wrote for Stockholms Tidningen. Other members included Vilhelm Bryde, Arne Bornesbusch, Eyvind Johnson and later Einar Lauritzen. Einar Lauritzen chronicles his having been persuaded to head the Swedish Film Archive by Idestram-Alquist in 1940 and the archive not only having stored film, but also posters and stills. While Goran Bolin and Michael Forsman add Gosta Werner, crediting him with having helped found the cinematic society in Lund during 1929, to the company of Begnt Idestam-Almquist and Rune Walderkranz, they specifically note the contributions made by author Tytti Soila for having analyzed the "function of images of femininity" in early Swedish sound films from between 1929-1939. The authors point out that in addition to the silent era, recent concerns of Film Studies have been historiography, neoformalistic narratology and autuer criticism.

Edvin Adolphson directed his first film, it having been the first film made in Sweden to include sound, "The Dream Waltz" ("Sag debt I toner") co-directed by Julius Jaenzon and starring Jenny Hasselquist and Eric Malberg.  per Olov Quistad and Peter Von Bagh specify the place of the film in chronological history, "It had no talking parts, just a soundtrack with music and sound effects on disc, but it's immediate success convinced the direction board to continue."
Aside from the beginning of a discourse of modernity that would express Sweden as a new thriving culture while sharply contrasting the landscape film of the golden age of silent film and its affair with exterior action shots with the new dialogue shot reverse shot interior, it is a dramatic comparison between the limited number of sound films produced in Scandinavia with the more expensive photographic equipment and the startling number of early sound films that have been lost, of which no copies have been preserved. The Swedish Film Institute reports that 56 sound films made in the first decades of sound in Sweden are considered lost and have not survived on celluloid. One can begin with one of the earliest Swedish sound features, "Doctor's Secret" ("Doctorons hemlighet"), of which there are no surviving copies. Directed by John W. Brunius, it is among one of the three screenplays written that year by Pelle Stille. The film ran a little over an hour and starred actresses Pauline Brunius, Marta Ekstrom, Anne-Marie Brunius and Ragna Broo-Juter. The film "Hjartats roast" also written by Pelle Stille in 1930 is also lost, with no present archived prints. it was directed by Rune Carlsten and starred Margit Manstad.

If "The Doctor's Secret" can be under a multiple languague policy be considered a remake of the Hollywood film "The Doctor's Secret" directed in 1929 by William C. DeMille, then a second film directed by John Brunius in 1930, "The Two of Us" (Tva Vi) can be considered under a multiple languague policy to be a remake of the Hollywood film "The Lady Lies" (Henley, 1929).

Also considered lost, with no surviving copies or fragmanets, is the film "False Greta" (Falska Greta, 1934) directed by John and Pauline Bruinius and starring actress Karin Albihn.
American Cinematographer in 1931 described the Svensk Filmindustri studio at Rasunda in the article "A Cinematographer in Sweden", two of their journalist having visited, "They still use the old style glass stages and, unlike most of our producers, instead of spending a great deal of money for sound proofing them, they have merely surrounded their sets with heavy monk's cloth drapes, which deaden the unwanted reverberation quite satisfactorily."

Julius Jaenzon, the legendary cinematographer of Victor Sjostrom went ahead to direct in 1930, also photographing the film "Ulla My Ulla" ("Ulla My Ulla") during 1930, the assistant director of the film having been Per Axel Banner, it having been the first film in which actress Karin Granberg was to appear. Also starring in the film were actresses Greta Soderberg and Brita Appelgren. The screenplay of the film was written by Solve Cederstrand. Rather than signaling an overnight change, it marked a technological shift from the Golden Age of Swedish Silent Film, Sjostrom being far from absent from the screen, but returning to Sweden as an actor while Molander and Sjoberg prefaced are return to Strindbergian drama that would be championed by Ingmar Bergman. During 1930, Julius Jaenzon had also if fact been behind the camera to photograph the film "Frida's Song's" (Frida's visor) for director Gustaf Molander. The film starred Elizabeth Frisk, Tore Svennberg, Lili Lani, and Annalisa Ericson in what would be her second film appearance, her having been featured in the Swedish Silent Film "Malapirater" (Gustaf Molander, 1923) Filmed at Filmstraden, Rasundra, Sweden, the screenplay to "Frida's Visor" was written by legendary silent film photoplay dramatist Ragnar Hylten-Cavallius. Julius Jaenzon during 1930 was also with cinematographer Hugo Edlund on the set of the film "The Crown's Cavaliers/Crown's Escort" (Kronar's kavaljerer) directed by Gustaf Edgren. The film starred Brita Appelgren, Stina Berg and Lisa Wirstrom in her first appearance on screen as an actress. Swedish cinematographer Harold Berglund in 1930 began fiming under the direction of Ragnar Ring on the film "Lyckobreven". Swedish cinematographer Hilmer Ekdahl photographed his first film, "En parleksnatt vid Oresund", in 1931. Directed by Ragnar Widestedt and Solve Cederstrand, the film stars Elisabeth Frisk and actress Maritta Marke in the first film in which she was to appear. Photographer Ake Dahlquist during 1931 was with Julius Jaenzon on the set to the film "Dante's Mysterier", written and directed by Paul Merzbach. The assistant director to the film was Oscar Rosander, who later worked extensively with Ingmar Bergman.The film starred actresses Elisabeth Frisk and Zara Leander. Although Julius Jaenzon was the cameraman to the film "Isabella", starring Gosta Ekman, it was only five minutes in length and one of only three films directed by Edvin Adolphson that year, the director himself having starred in the other two equally short films made that year, "I bonhuset" and "Fadervall". It would seem as there would soon be the task of establishing which was the sole survivor of the Golden Age of Swedish Silent Film, or for that matter, Swedish Silent Film, Greta Garbo or Victor Sjostrom. Legendary for writing with Victor Sjostrom was silent film photoplay dramatist Sam Ask whose last script was for the sound film "Adventyr in Pyjamas", directed by Ragnar Widestadt in 1935 and starring Signe Wirff, Inga-Bodil Veterlund, Anna-Marie Brunius, and actress Eivor Engelbrektsson. Actress Edith Erastoff from the Golden Age of Swedish Silent Film had stopped acting after having married Victor Sjostrom in 1922, making only one sound comeback film, "Johann Ulfstjerna" directed by Gustaf Edgren and photographed by Julius Jaenzen. Actor Gosta Ekman appeared with Erastof in the film. Actress Karin Molander, who stopped acting shortly before having married actor Lars Hanson in 1922 made a similar one film sound comeback for director Hasse Ekman with the film "Gabrielle", but not untill 1954.
     New Movie Magazine during 1930 announce,"Greta Almroth, star of Swedish pictures when Nils Aster was making a humble beginning was the Greta Garbo of Sweden. She plays a bit in "Dream of Love" as an infuriated revolutionist in a scene with with Warner Oland. As exciting as the listing is, the Svenska Filminstitutet lists Greta Almroth as not having appeared in film between 1924-1934. That is not to say that the scene could not have been film and later cut, or the she could have been uncredited for her work, it is just that it is difficult to find biography compelling enough to think that she ever visited Hollywood. Based on the work "Adrienne Lecoureur" by Photoplay dramatist Dorothy Farnum, the film is considered to be lost, there being no surviving prints that can be screened where the scene with Almroth can be viewed,  it being part of my sections on Lost Films,Found Magazines where the only way to experience cinema is look at surviving posters, stills and magazine reviews published during the first run of the film. Scandinavian actress Greta Nissen however was in fact in Hollywood during the advent of sound film, but does not appear with Oland and Asther in the film.

There had in fact been a Swedish company that during 1928 advertised in the United States in providing the synchronization of motion pictures, Nordicphone in Stockholm, who recorded the human actor and sound effects on disc with the fiber stylus.
     Periodicals of the era reported that sound films were first shown in Sweden on May 2, 1929. A year later, the Roda Kvarn in Stockholm, "the permanent home of the silent film", would still be waiting to decide when it would install sound equipment. it was reported that while there was interest in sound film and that more theaters were being wired based on their success, Sweden currently then had its first two sound films in production, but manufactured no recording or production equipment. In that Nordisk Film had discontinued making films in Denmark entirely, it reformed in to the newly created Nordisk Tone-Film, which produced one reel sound films. American equipment was installed in theaters not using Danish made sound reproduction. Motion Picture News reported that although Svensk Filmindustri would release eight silent films and four that had both silent and sound versions and the production of short subjects with sound was currently in preparation, only one film would be presented with synchronized sound from Rasunda. It is uncanny to read of the difficulty entertained more than a decade earlier by inventor M. Sven Berglund and similar attempts to use telephone wires to synchronize recorded sound to five reel films.

The appendices to the volume The New Spirit in the Cinema, Analysis, and Interpretation of the Parallel Paths of Cinema, published by Harold Shaylor, Gower Street, reported with a tone of optimism the modernity of the two film studios at Rasunda while it placed the then recent transition from silent to sound film into the bookshelves with hardcover accounts and appraisals of the new technology, "There is no doubt that Svensk Filmindustri has now entered upon another period of successful production. During the past year several films were produced which have enjoyed an extraordinarily great success in Sweden, namely the farce 'Konstgjorda Svennson', 'Norrlangningar', the magnificent film from the frozen polar regions, 'Den Starkaste' and not least, the first Swedish sound film, 'Sage Det i toner', which has beaten all previous records of popularity in Sweden. This year's production has already started with a farce and comedy founded on one of Selma Lagerlof's latest novels, 'Charlotte Lowenskold'. At the moment talking film equipment of the Tobias system is being installed. Svensk Filmindustri will henceforth produce sound films and talkies side by side with silent films." The volume noted that "the public is getting tired of American film and its jazzy mentality", which had flooded European theaters, and that it "feels again attracted to films of lyrical inspiration." It went on to discuss Europe and the fact that films made in Switzerland at the time seemed non-existent, but that there were a half-dozen that seemed worth of being noted.

Gustaf Bergman directed his first film during 1930, “The Dangerous Game” (Den farlickleken) starring Jenny Hasselqvist, Olga Anderson and Elisa Wallin. The screenplay to the film was written by Elsa af Trolle. The film is considered lost with no surviving copies. Included with the films Gustaf Bergman directed in Sweden the following year that are now unobtainable due to there being no surviving copies are the lost films "En Kvinnas Morgendag", "Karleck mast vi ha" and "Generalen". Lost with no surviving copies is the film "En Kvinnas Morgendag" (Tommorow For A Woman/A Woman's Tommorow", directed in 1931 by Gustaf Bergman, the screenplay again having been written by Elsa af Trolle. The film features the exceptionally beautiful friend of Greta Garbo, Vera Schmiterlow. Schimterlow was primarily a silent actress, appearing in about one film a year during the silent period, "En kvinnas Morgondag" being one of the two sound films in which she had appeared.The cinematographer to the film was Fred Lagenfield. Gustaf Bergman directed actress Isa Quensel in her first screen appearance in "We Must Have Love" (Karleck mast vi ha", also a lost film. Written by Torsten Quensel and photographed again by Fred Lagenfield, the film stars Margit Rosengren, Valborg Hansson, Ilsa Backstrom, and Anna-Lisa Baude. Gustaf Bergman continued directing in 1931 with the film "General" (Generalen), photographed by Phillip Tannura and starring Edvin Adolphson, Karen Swanson and Inga Tiblad, there being no surviving cooies of the film at present. Technically, at present all of the films directed by Gustaf Berman during his brief career remain lost.

Scholar Christopher Natzen, in his important paper “The Coming of Sound Film in Sweden, 1928-1932 notes that although the use of non-diegetic music within sound film had become common in Hollywood during 1933, it had already been introduced in Sweden during 1931. Natzen looks at the authenticity of sounds used within the diegesis of sound films made in Sweden while sharing with author Ann-Kristin Wallgren her look at the function of film music in sound film, that being “how Film music works in relating to the image either by relating to characters and objects or by relating generally to atmosphere and space.”

Film Daily magazine reported during 1931 that, "Scandinavian countries will produce about 32 talking features this year...Practically all important houses in Sweden are wired for sound."

It might seem easier to evaluate the rise of Gustaf Molander to the forefront of Swedish film directors during the 1930's, and the handful of films made by director John Brunius, for that matter, by looking to the United States and a quote from author Iris Barry on a sound film made by American silent film director D.W. Griffith "The industry had undergone a severe shaking up with the advent of sound in 1927 and the time was propitious for the 'comeback' of an oldtimer." For Griffith, the film may have been more successful with film critics and reviewers than a reception that would ensure more films to follow. In the United States, authors Pikin and Marston arrived on the scene with the speed of the Keystone Cops to publish "The Art Sound Pictures", similar to many of the photoplay wrting manuals of the twenties with sections on plot construction, character portrayal, as well as feelings and emotions. Just by looking at snippets from the preface, it is clear that sound film was an overnight sensation. "Do not regard what we say as the last word on sound pictures. Regard it as the latest word on it. We are dealing with a new art which has not yet found itself.....It draws much from the stage, and yet it is not identical with stage drama. It borrows from the oldsilent pictures, but it transforms all it borrows.....As this book goes to press, Hollywood is just beginning to get its bearings in the art. The panic and confusion is over".

"One Night" ("En Natt", Molander, 1931) had been written by Ragnar Hylten-Cavallius and yet it owed much of its construction to its assistant director, Gosta Hellstrom. Hellstrom had been a film critic and had met with both Eisenstien and Pudovkin before returning to his native Sweden. The film is distinct from Molander's other film in its technique, it's editing. Appearing in the film were Gerda Lundequist, Unno Henning, Sture Lagerwall, Ingert Bjuggren and Karin Swanstrom.

Also lost is the film "Dangerous Paradise" Swedish film director Rune Carlsten during 1931 directed the film "Dangerous Paradise" ("Faroranas Paradis"), adapted from a novel by Joseph Conrad, starring Ragnar Arvedson and Elizabeth Frisk. That year he also co-directed the film "Half to Heaven" ("Halvvags till Himlen"), starring Elisabeth Frisk, Edvin Adolphson and Karin Swanstrom. Co-directed by Carlsten with Stellan Windrow, it is also a lost film with no surviving copies. The only film directed by Frederick Lindh, "Wireless and Loving" (Tradlost och Karleckfult") from 1931 is a lost film with no surviving copies. It stars actresees Karin Swanstrom and Margita Alfven. Written by its director Frederick Lindh the film was photographed by Ted Pahl.

Swedish film director Theodor Berthel in 1931 wrote and directed the film "His Majesty Will Have to Wait" ("Hans Majectat far Vanta") photographed by Adrian Bjurman and based on a play by Oscar Rydqvist. The film's stars Margit Manstad, Ragnar Arvedson, Aina Rosen, Britta Vieweg and Emmy Albiin.

Swedish film director Per Axel Branner directed Astrid Bodin in her first film during 1931, "Under Roda Fanor", written by Fredrick Storm and photographed by Gosta Sandin. Also starring in the film are Ruth Weijden and Gertie Lowestrom.
     1931 brought the film "Love and the Homeguard" ("Karleck och Landstrom") directed by John Lindlof and produced by Europa-film, Stockholm. Scholar Christopher Natzenhus, Stockholm, noted that Europa and other emerging companies, then including Sandrews, were too small to compete with Svensk Filmindustri, who were in fact increasing their production output.

During 1931 Swedish Film director John Brunius was concluding his career directing "Longing for the Sea" (Langtan till havet" starring actresses Inga Tiblad and Karin Swanstrom with appearances on screen by two actors that would soon be behind the camera directing frequenly, Edvin Adolphson and Rune Carlsten.

Gustaf Edgren during 1932 directed the film “The Varmlanders” (“Varmlanningarna”) with actresses Annalise Ericson, Hilda Borgstrom and Emmy Albiin. Based on a play by Fredreck pa Rannsatt and Andreas Randel, an earlier version of the film had been made in 1921 by Silent Film Director Eric A Petschler.

The first film directed by Gosta Rudin, "Two Hearts and a Ship" (Tva hjartan och en skuta) is a lost film with no surviving copies. Directed by Rodin during 1932, it starred Birgit Sergelius and was the first film in which Carin Swensson was to appear. Coscripted by Gosta Rudin with Torsten Lundquvist, the cinematographer of the film was Carl Halling.

Gustaf Molander directed three films durng 1932, “Black Roses” (“Svarta rosor”), photographed by Ake Dahlqvist and written by Ragnar Hylten-Cavilius, it having starred Karin Sawnstrrom and Ruth Stevens, “We Who Use The Servants Entrance” (“Vi som gar koksvagen”) also photographed by Ake Dahlqvist while having been scripted by Tancred Ibsen and starring Karin Swanstrom, Tutta Rolf, Tollie Zollman, Rene Bjorling and Rut Holm, and “Love and Defecit” (“Karloch och Kassanrigt”), scripted by Gosta Stevens and photographed by Julius Jaenzon, which starred Tutta Rolf, Sigurd Wallen and Edvin Adolphson. It was also the first film in which actress Alice Carlson was to appear; the film is generally considered also the first in which Tutta Rolf was to appear, her husband Ernst Rolf having had appeared in shorts. Jesper Larsson, Stockholm University, has credited Tutta Rolf as having starred in "Love and Deficit" simultaneuously with the film "Lucky Devils" (Lyckans Gullgossar) directed at Rasunda Studios by Sigurd Wallen and Ivar Johansson, in which she co-starred with actress Maritta Marke.

Forsyth Hardy, in his volume Scandinavian Film, seperates Gustaf Molander from the Golden Age of Swedish Silent Film but credits Molander as having been an "apt pupil" of Victor Sjostrom and Maurtiz Stiller, placing some of the responsibility on the studio. "Molander's films had a highly technical polish and, at first encounter, a certain gaeity, but in repetition they quickly produced monotony." Jesper Larsson, Stockholm University, mentions that both Peter Cowie and Leif Furhammar voice the sense that the Golden Age of Swedish Silent Film had plummeted with the advent of sound film and had been surplanted by "mediocre" comedy in pursuit of commercial success rather tha artistic merit.

If there is one notable exception the the decline of the Golden Age of Swedish Silent Film and the move to the interiors of filmed theater by screenwriter, now director Gustaf Molander and director now actor Victor Sjostrom it is perhaps director Ivar Johansson. The periodical Cinema Quaterly in 1935 reviewed the 1933. "He prefers to produce his films in surroundings full of strength and granduer; the wild rivers and sweeping valleys of the north of Sweden, as in 'Halsingar'; or the outmost barren islans of the archipelago, swept by wind and wave, as in 'Surfs'. His characters live, and are one, with their surroundings, and the conflicts grow up out of the mileu in a way that is not common in films. He sketches in the landscape and its people with broad, powerful strokes and his characters have space and horizen behind them." Written and directed by Ivar Johansson and phtographed by Einar Akesson for Svensk Talfilm, "Halsingar" (People of Halsingland) starred actresses Hilda Castegren, Inga Tibland, Karin Ekelund, Emmy Abin, Karen Grannerg and Aurore Palmgren in the first film in which she was to appear.

During 1933 Eric Malmberg and Rune Carlsten directed the first film in which actress Signe Hasso was to appear, her having at that time been Signe Larsson. Rune Carlsten appears both in front of the camera as an actor and behind it, as does cinematographer Harry Hasso, it having been the first film that he had phtotgraphed. Actress Signe Larsson became Signe Hasso after the film was produced. It is a film which was also part of the early career of actress Dora Soderberg. Like Greta Garbo, actress Signe Hasso made a pilgrimage to Hollywood to star in movies, her having appeared in the films "Heaven Can Wait" (Ernst Lubitsch, 1943), "A Double Life" (George Cukor, 1947) and "To the Ends of the Earth" (Robert Stevenson, 1948). Actress Dora Soderberg, daughter of playwright Hjalmer Soderberg, during 1933 starred with Sickan Carlsson and Ruth Stevens under the direction of Gustaf Molander in the film "Dear Relatives" (Kara Slakten), scripted by Gosta Stevens. Hjalmer Soderberg had published "The Transformed Messiah" (Den forvandlade Messias) in 1932.

Gosta Rodin in 1934 wrote and directed “She or No One” (“Hon Eller Ingen”) produced by Eu'ropa and starring Inga Tiblad, Anna Olin and Sture Lagerwall. That year he also directed Lagerwall with actress Isa Quensel in the film “Adventyr pa Hotell”. It was the year the director married actress Aina Rosen.

Out of the 23 feature films made in Sweden, and if the rate of competition from America listed for that year is accurate the country screened less than fifty films for viewing that year, Film Daily Year Book noted that during 1933 "Europa-film, Stockholm, produced four feature films, all sound on film." Accordingly, Svensk Talfilm produced only one film from its studio in Stockholm and only one was made by Irefilm, Stockholm.

The Kinetograph Yearbook of 1935, published in Long Acre, while providing an assessment of international film markets compared Swedish Film production to that of other leading countries while viewing Saedish Film as comprising a genre of its own, "The conditions prevailing in 1934 have been satisfactory as illustrated by the fact that after 14 years, Svenska Filmindustri...have resumed a payment of a dividend (6 percent) on the ordinary A shares. Film production has also kept its own...Most of the Swedish output is of a national character, inasmuch as the stories are taken from Swedish life and laid against a Swedish landscape." The periodical Cinema Quarterly during 1934 viewed Sweden as in financial competition with other foreign distributors, particularly in the home market, and in doing so it complemented the quality of films made in Sweden before the advent of sound while recognizing a new generation of Swedish filmmakers that were quickly beginning to be viewed outside of Sweden. They were led by the more experienced Gustav Molander, "He received his early schooling in the glorious epoch of Sweden's silent film when he worked as an assistant to, among others, Victor Sjostrom." The periodical gave credit to the photography of Ake Dahlquist in two of Molander's films, "En Natt" and "En Stilla Flirt". " 'A Mild Flirt' has been a great success in Sweden. In spite of the fact that Sweden is the native country of Greta Garbo, a good Swedish film is generally a greater commercial success than a Garbo film. In 'A Mild Flirt', the principal part was taken by Tutta Rolf, who earlier this year, left for Hollywood. Where she is under contract with Fox." Author Paul Rotha, in his volume The Film till Now, a survey of world cinema, offered an alternative, more disillusioned, interpretation, "With their long and fine tradition in film making in the early silent days, the Scandinavian countries have experienced the utmost difficulties in trying to regain their place in world cinema. Severely limited by the dictates of dialogue, comparatively little of their work has been seen overseas. in Sweden, the films produced since 1930 have been strongly marked by national characteristics, but from Gustav Molander's 'En Natt'1931) through 'The Heavenly Play' (1944) and 'Torment' (1946), none of its productions we have seen has broken really fresh ground. Victor Sjostrom returned from Hollywood to Sweden to function primarily as an actor and until recently Gustav Molander and some of other veterans from the silent days have carried on." Author Forsyth Hardy adds,"Most of the films of the middle thirties were recieved by critics with some reservation. They were anxious, sometimes over-anxious, to see signs of a revival." When a revival did in fact eventually emerge and Sweden would veer from producing profitable comedies that avoided recognition while depicting the lighthearted complacency of the period, it would ironically be propelled by remakes of earlier adaptations of Selma Lagerlof as it reunited Gustaf Molander with actor Victor Sjostrom and actor Lars Hanson in dramatic features, Molander and Sjostrom returning to a sense of theater with the adaptation of a play written by Kaj Munk that would later be remade as a masterpiece by Carl Th. Dreyer.

The 1934 film "En Stille Flirt" (A Quiet Affair), starring Birgitta Tengroth and Margit Manstad had been adapted for the screen by Gosta Stevens from the novel by Edith Oberg. It was directed by Gustav Molander. The following year, Gosta Stevens would return to script Gustav Molander's film "A Bachelor Father" ("Ungkarlspappan"), photographed by Einer Akesson.

Greta Garbo confidant Mona Martenson, Sickan Carlsson and Hilda Borgstrom starred in the film "Simon i Backboo" directed by Gustaf Edgren in 1934 from a screenplay by Oscar Rydqvist and Oscar Hemberg. The cinematographer to the film was Martin Bodin. Gustaf Edgren during 1934 also directed a film viewed by the periodical Cinema Quarterly as being "one of the year's greatest commercial successes", "Karl Fredrick Reigns" ("Karl-Fredrik regerar") with Gunnar Skoglund, Pauline Bruinius and actress Brit-Lis Edgren in what was to be her first film appearance. The cinematographer was Martin Bodin, the scriptwriter Oscar Rydvist. Oscar Rydvist also scripted the first film edited by Oscar Rosander, "Valborgsmassoafton", filmed in 1935. Directed by Gustaf Edgren, it stars actress Linnea Hillberg in a seemingly all-star cast which included Victor Sjostrom, Lars Hanson, Karin, George Rydeberg and upcoming international star Ingrid Bergman. Author Forsyth Hardy described the subject matter, or theme perhaps, of the film as being “The everyday life of the people.” Hardy writes, "Edgren was a good storyteller and when he could escape from the farces which he directed with such facility, he could develop a warm human quality to his films."

Tancred Ibsen directed Victor Sjostrom during 1934 along with Fritiof Billquist, who was to later pen a biography on Greta Garbo, in the film "Synnove Solbakken". Actress Karin Ekelund stars in the titular role. That year Ibsen also directed his wife, Lillebil Ibsen, in the Norwegian comedy "Op Med Hodet".

Ragnar Allberg of Cinema Quarterly praised Per Axel Branner as one of the young upcoming directors of Swedish film in 1935. He wrote, “His characters live, and are one with their surroundings, and the conflicts grow up out of the milieu in a way which is not common in film. His sketches in landscapes, and its people with broad powerful strokes and his characters have space and horizon behim them.” Per Axel Branner that year directed the film “Young Hearts” (“Unga Hjartan”), which he conscripted with Martin Rogberg.The Film stars Anne-Marie Brunius, Marta Ekstrom and Wanda Rothgardt. The cinematographer to the film was Valdemar Christensen.

Gustaf Molander during 1935 directed what was to be yet another comedy, "Under False Flag" (Under Flask Flagg), scripted by Gosta Stevens and Solve Cederstrand. The film starred actresses Tutta Rolf, Karin Kavali, Anna Lindhal and Carin Swensson. The cinematographer to the film was Einar Akesson.

Gosta Rodin during 1935 directed the film "Love for Sheet MUsic" (Karleck efter noter) starring Karin Swanstrom, Gull Natrop, and Sickan Carlsson.. Coscripted by Gosta Rodin with Torsten Lundqvist, the cinematographer of the film was Martin Bodin.

G. Holmgren directed his first film in 1935, a short film titled "Havet lockar". Holmgren later directed the film "Sabotage" ("Se pop Spionen") during 1944, starring Marianne Lofgren and Inga Bodil Vetterlund. Holmgren is also notable for his remake of the film "Malarpirater", made in 1959 and photographed by Ake Dahlquist.

The Americans periodical Motion Picture Daily In 1936 review the film “On the Sunnyside” (“Pa Solsidan”), directed by Gustaf Molander. “It is finely photographed and a finished production. The yacht racing sequences are of particular merit. While the tempo lags at times it usually move slow gayly along.” Photographed by Ake Dahlqvist and adapted from a screenplay written by Gosta Stevens, the film starred Lars Hanson, Ingrid Bergman, Edvin Adolphson, Karin Swanstrom and Marianne Lofgren.

Movie Classic magazine during 1936 paid tribute to a Swedish actress filming "Dressed to Thrill" in the United States, "Her name is Tutta Rolf. Jot that down in your memory book: you will be hearing it often when this picture gets around....The story revolves around three people, and she is two of them; the third is Clive Brook." Tutta Rolf went to Hollywood during 1935 to make he film "Dressed to Thrill" for director Harry Lachmann. Jesper Larsson, Stockholm University, points out that the film was not successful enough for Rolf to remain in the United States and she quickly returned to Rasunda Studios in Stockholm. Jesper Larsson evaluates the period up unitll her going to America as her "formative years" when Tutta Rolf was "at the peak of her carrer."
Although the film "Intermezzo" was screened first run in the United States in Swedish with English subtitles, Film Daily magazine looked at the film more than favorably, reviewing it with, "Powerful, Dramatic Story with Deft Comedy Touches, Should Appeal to Foriegn Fans." With a screenplay credited to Gustaf Molander and Gosta Stevens, when reviewed the film was said to include, "The direction of Gustaf Molander is praiseworthy."

Forsyth Hardy in the volume Scandinavian Film uses an unattributed block quote to relate the extratextural reception of the film, in which is included, " 'Intermezzo', however, plunges right into the deep water and tries individualistic descriptions of human beings which are both beautiful and sensitive." He bookends the quote with an observation before chronicling a voyage of Julius Jaenzon and Tancred Ibsen to the South Pole, "It seems strange that it should have been necessary to urge Swedish directors to leave the studio, their concentration on comedies, and farces, drawn from stage examples had blinded them to the virtue to be drawn from the Swedish landscape." Bengt Forslund points out that comedies had become monotonous for Gustaf Molander who began a series of melodramas with the film "Intermezzo" in 1936. "Nevertheless, it is unusually well constructed with finely concieved characters, a skilfully varied plot and with fine and detailed craftmanship in both scenes and scenery."

During 1939, Victor Sjostrom appeared as an actor in the film "The Old Man's Coming" (Gubben kommer), directed by Per Lindberg, which Lindberg co-adapted with Stina Berg and the novel's author Gosta Gustaf-Janson. Photographed by Ake Dalquist and edited by Oscar Rosander, the film starred silent film actress Tora Teje with Aino Taube, Elsa Burnett, and Elsa Widborg. Olaf Molander and Edvin Adolphson also appear on screen in the film. That year Victor Sjostrom also appeared in the film "Towards New Times" (Mot nya Tider),directed by Sigurd Wallen and starring actresses Solveig Hedengren, Gun-Mari Kejellstrom, Ulla Hodell, Anna Olin and Marianne Aminoff.

In the United States, the periodical Motion Picture Herald reviewed the film "One Night Only" as a Swedish Love Drama,"an adult story of the psychology of love". It continued with "sexual undertones pervade". The film was directed in 1939 by Gustaf Molander and photographed by Einar Akesson. Gosta Stevens adapted the screenplay from the novel written in 1935 by Harald Tandrup. The interplay dynamic of characters included actresses Ingrid Bergman and Aino Taube and actor Edvin Adolphson.

Forsyth Hardy writes that the Golden Age of Swedish Silent Film had not entirely been without effect, "It was natural that during this period of revival, traditional elements of Swedish culture should find expression. The mysticism found in many of Selma Lagerlof's works was echoed in such films as 'Himalspelt' ('THe Road to Heaven', 1942), 'Ordet' (1943) and 'Flickan och Djalvelen' (1943)." Notwithstanding, author Peter Cowie, in his volume Scandinavian Cinema, credits Gustaf Molander with creating a "political allegory" while ascribing "mystical" if not "pantheistic" elements to Carl Th. Dreyer's screen treatment of "Ordet" by Kaj Munk.

Gustaf Molander's "Ride Tonight" (Rid i Natt, 1942) based on a novel by Vilhelm Moberg and Molander's "The Invisible Wall" (The Unseen Wall, Den onsynligen muren) have been termed "occupation films" by Eric Lawrence in his paper The Motion Industry in Sweden, who notes their importance due to the nimber of refugees during that time. The former starred Hilda Bjorgstrom, Erik Hampe Faustman, Eva Dahlbeck and Anders Ek, the latter brought Inga Tiblad, Irma Christensen, Hilda Bjorstrom and Brita Brunius to the screen. Both films were photographed for Gustaf Molander by Ake Dahlqvist.

Alf Sjoberg in 1944 co-wrote and directed "The Royal Hunt" (Kungajakt), photographed by Ake Dahlqvist and starring Inga Tiblad. Author Peter Cowie, in his volume Scandinavian Cinema, opines the film "provdes further evidence of Sjoberg's graceful, felicitous gift for directing exteriors." Author Leslie Wood, in the volume Miracle of the Movies writes, "Alf Sjoberg was also from the theater, but his work lay along even more experimental lines. Unlike his predecessors in the Swedish studios, his work is much less literary and far more filmic." Author Forsyth Hardy, in his volume Scandinavian Film, summarizes that, "Sjoberg showed that there could be harmony between style and purpose ina film, that skill in film-making could be used for something more rewarding than elegant trifles." Hardy soon continues by delineating a "revival" of the traditional cultural elements with Swedish cinema, ie. a rediscovering of the techniques and themes used in the Golden Age of Swedish Silent Film, "Sjoberg's 'Himlaspelet' (Road to Heaven) was afilm of great importance and significance which broadened the base of the revival and demonstrated that it did not depend only on the exploitation of a vein of psychological dramas in the style of the French directors."

During 1944, Gustaf Edgren directed "Dolly tar Chansen",starring Marguerite Viby and Hjorda Pettersson, for Frinergs Filmbura, Stockholm. Coscripted by Gustaf Edgren and Gardar Sahlberg, the cinematographer to the film was Ake Dahlqvist.

Gustaf Molander in 1945 directed "Galgmannen" from a script by Karl Ragnar Gierow. Photographed by Ake Dahlqvist, the film stars Inga Tiblad, Wanda Rothgardt and Hilda Borgstrom.

Victor Sjostrom
Greta Garbo

Gustaf Molander

The Temptress

Sven Garbo

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